一致性 hash 算法及标准差验证

发布于: 2020 年 07 月 12 日
一致性hash算法及标准差验证

定义:一致性hash算法是在分布式缓存系统中解决扩容前后数据访问不一致性问题的算法,解决动态伸缩问题。

思路:先定义一个足够容量的hash环,然后将实际节点对应的虚拟节点的hash值分部到该环上,然后通过查找离待查找key的hash值最近的虚拟节点来找到对应的实际节点。

实现一:

SortedMap<Integer, Node> hashCircle = new TreeMap<Integer, Node>();

//初始化一致性hash环

for (Node node : nodes) {

for (int i = 0; i < virtualNums; i++) {

​ hashCircle.put(hash(node.toString() + i), node);

​ }

​ }

//计算key对应的服务器node

​ int hash = getHash(key); //计算key的hash值

​ if (!hashCircle.containsKey(hash)) { //key的hash值是否和虚拟节点的hash相同

​ SortedMap<Integer, String> tailMap = hashCircle.tailMap(hash);//key的右子树

​ hash = tailMap.isEmpty() ? hashCircle.firstKey() : tailMap.firstKey();

​ }

​ return hashCircle.get(hash);

实现二:

package ch;

import java.util.ArrayList;

import java.util.HashMap;

import java.util.Iterator;

import java.util.List;

import java.util.Map;

import java.util.SortedMap;

import java.util.TreeMap;

public class ConsistentHashing {

private static final char[] hex = { '0', '1', '2', '3', '4', '5', '6', '7', '8', '9', 'a', 'b', 'c', 'd', 'e',

'f' };

public static class Node {

// node's fields.

private String ipAddr;

private int port;

private String nodeName;

public Node(String ipAddr, int port, String nodeName) {

this.ipAddr = ipAddr;

this.port = port;

this.nodeName = nodeName;

}

public String toString() {

return nodeName + ":<" + ipAddr + ":" + port + ">";

}

}

private final SortedMap<Integer, Node> nodeMap = new TreeMap<Integer, Node>();

private int[] hashVal;

private int virtualNums;

public ConsistentHashing(Node[] nodes, int virtualNums) {

this.virtualNums = virtualNums;

// 初始化一致性Hash环

for (Node node : nodes) {

for (int i = 0; i < this.virtualNums; i++) {

nodeMap.put(hash(node.toString() + i), node);

}

}

Integer[] tmp = nodeMap.keySet().toArray(new Integer[0]);

hashVal = copy(tmp);

}

public void add(Node node) {

for (int i = 0; i < this.virtualNums; i++) {

nodeMap.put(hash(node.toString() + i), node);

}

Integer[] tmp = nodeMap.keySet().toArray(new Integer[0]);

hashVal = copy(tmp);

}

public void remove(Node node) {

for (int i = 0; i < this.virtualNums; i++) {

nodeMap.remove((hash(node.toString() + i)));

}

Integer[] tmp = nodeMap.keySet().toArray(new Integer[0]);

hashVal = copy(tmp);

}

/**

* 环形中查找下一节点就是在有序整数数组中查找一个大于等于当前值的元素,完全的二分查找。 仅是返回值的判断条件不同。

*

* @param key

* @return

*/

public Node getNode(String key) {

int hash = hash(key);

int low = 0, high = hashVal.length - 1;

while (low <= high) {

int mid = (low + high) / 2;

int midVal = hashVal[mid];

if (midVal >= hash) {

if (mid == 0 || hashVal[mid - 1] <= hash) {

return nodeMap.get(midVal);

}

high = mid - 1;

} else {

low = mid + 1;

}

}

return nodeMap.get(hashVal[0]);

}

private int[] copy(Integer[] src) {

int[] tmp = new int[src.length];

for (int i = 0; i < tmp.length; i++)

tmp[i] = src[i];

return tmp;

}

private int hash(String key) {

try {

java.security.MessageDigest md5 = java.security.MessageDigest.getInstance("MD5");

md5.update(key.getBytes());

byte[] data = md5.digest();

char[] charArr = new char[32];

for (int i = 0; i < data.length; i++) {

charArr[i * 2] = hex[data[i] >>> 4 & 0xF];

charArr[i * 2 + 1] = hex[data[i] & 0xF];

}

return new String(charArr).hashCode();

} catch (Exception e) {

return Integer.MIN_VALUE;

}

}

public static void main(String[] args) {

Node[] nodes = new Node[10];

Map<Node, List<String>> map = new HashMap<Node, List<String>>();

// make nodes

for (int i = 0; i < nodes.length; i++) {

nodes[i] = new Node("10.1.33.2" + i, 8070, "mynode" + i);

}

ConsistentHashing ch = new ConsistentHashing(nodes, 200);

// make keys

String[] keys = new String[1000000];

for (int i = 0; i < keys.length; i++) {

keys[i] = "key" + (i * 17)+ "ss" + i * 19;

}

// make results

for (String key : keys) {

Node n = ch.getNode(key);

List<String> l = map.get(n);

if (l == null) {

l = new ArrayList<String>();

map.put(n, l);

}

l.add(key);

}

//统计标准差,评估服务器节点的负载均衡性

double load[] = new double[nodes.length];

int x=0;

for (Iterator<Node> i = map.keySet().iterator(); i.hasNext();) {

Node key = i.next();

List<String> l = map.get(key);

load[x++] = l.size();

}

System.out.println(variance(load));

}

//标准差

public static double variance(double[] data) {

double variance = 0;

double expect = sum(data) / data.length;

for (int i = 0; i < data.length; i++) {

variance = variance + (Math.pow((data[i] - expect), 2));

}

variance = variance / data.length;

return Math.sqrt(variance);

}

private static double sum(double[] data) {

double sum = 0;

for (int i = 0; i < data.length; i++)

sum = sum + data[i];

return sum;

}

}

用户头像

Damon

关注

还未添加个人签名 2019.07.22 加入

还未添加个人简介

评论

发布
暂无评论
一致性hash算法及标准差验证